Borderline Personality Disorder

By Dr. Farzad Farahmand

Recent experiences with patients led me to study Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in more depth. It is a highly complicated psychological disorder that is often very difficult to diagnose and treat. It is known to be more prevalent among women with a history of physical, emotional or sexual abuse as a child. 

I’d like to share with you some valuable information that I have gathered and put together regarding Borderline Personality Disorder, in an effort to paint a big picture of this continuously devastating and lifelong disease that not only involves the patient, but also the people in their lives. 

The diagnosed patients can see favorable results, provided that they’d be compliant with the course of the treatment. Noncompliance to treatment is often an issue regarding patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

Borderline personality disorder is characterized by particular patterns of behavior, including instability in interpersonal relationships, impulse control and self-image. This results in impairments in self-management and the achievement of goals, as well as deficits in social interactions.

Approximately 15-20 percent of clinical patients have BPD, 10 percent of outpatients, and 2 percent of the general population. Due to the high prevalence of the disorder and the socio-cultural factors associated with it, many theories have been suggested to explain the possible causes of BPD.

Trauma in childhood can cause devastating psychological issues later in life. Interpersonal challenges and psychiatric disorders both can result from trauma. Major depression, panic disorder, substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder and eating disorders are all common outcomes associated with trauma during childhood.

Trauma can be caused by family violence, such as emotional or physical abuse, disease and the experience of war. Other Personality disorders such avoidant, paranoid, antisocial and schizotypal may also be outcomes of trauma. Because of the severe consequences of childhood trauma, it is sometimes called “soul murder.”

Parental rejection or verbal assaults, devaluation and being ignored all impact a child’s identity. Parental maltreatment can also influence the development of a secure attachment. Attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety both may be the result of childhood maltreatment. Fearful attachment styles are characterized by a desire for intimacy combined with a fear of hurt and rejection.

Studies have demonstrated that people diagnosed with BPD have a high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. In addition, childhood sexual abuse is associated with attachment avoidance. Some estimate a 75 percent rate of childhood sexual abuse in BPD patients. Furthermore, childhood sexual abuse was found to distinguish BPD patients from depressed, non-BPD adolescents.

Due to these factors, researchers believe that childhood sexual abuse may be an etiological factor for the development of borderline personality. In some studies, sexual abuse predicted BPD symptoms better than family environment, although instability in the family environment was a partial mediator.

Childhood sexual abuse is not the only form of maltreatment that has been linked with BPD. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect are all associated with the development of the disorder. In some studies, the rates of maltreatment were as high as 90 percent in BPD patients.

Because severe dissociation is included in the diagnostic criteria for BPD, some researchers believe that it may also be related to the emotional neglect experienced by so many of those suffering with BPD. Dissociation is a state in which one becomes removed from reality. This may take the form of daydreaming, running on auto-pilot or a general disconnection from actions. One study found four risk factors for dissociation: inconsistent treatment by a caretaker, sexual abuse, witnessing sexual violence as a child and adult rape history.

Dissociation and BPD may both share the etiological factor of childhood trauma. This means that, for some, the disorder is a defense mechanism against the childhood trauma. Its purpose is to prevent dangerous information from entering consciousness. Researchers also believe that the degree of betrayal that is linked with the childhood trauma may influence subsequent memory encoding and accessibility.

Memory and dissociation in BPD are now topics of intense focus for researchers. One study required patients with the disorder to take the Autobiographical Memory Test. During this test, participants recall specific events in their lives when given negative, positive or neutral word prompts. Those with BPD remembered far more general events and had more non-responses than the control group. In addition, the BPD patients responded to negative cues with significantly more general memories. The researchers found a correlation between the amount of general memories and the severity of dissociation in the patients with borderline personality.

Additionally, those with BPD believe less in the benevolence of others and the world in general compared to patients with other personality disorders. More women than men report high-betrayal trauma, which may serve to explain why more women, approximately 75 percent, are diagnosed with BPD. Gender aside, it is clear that betrayal traumas are strongly associated with BPD.

Because trauma is frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this condition has been examined in relationship with BPD. Studies have demonstrated size reductions of the left amygdala and hippocampus that vary with the severity of PTSD. Severity of traumatic exposure and severity of hippocampus size reduction have also been found to be related. What is evidenced by the current data is that BPD has a negative effect on the brains of those suffering with the disorder.

Safe & Effective Non-toxic Treatment

Dr. Salar’s Normalizing Brain Function Formula has been extremely successful in helping thousands of patients resolve their symptoms relating to single or multiple incidences of Brain concussion in their lifetime, in addition to symptoms arising from traumas that are emotional in origin.

The internationally known clinical psychologist and the author of the best-selling book, “Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus”, Dr. John Gray, experienced dramatic results from Dr. Salar’s Normalizing Brain Function treatment while recovering from a Brain Concussion. In order to help others, he mentioned Dr. Salar’s treatment in his book, “The Mars & Venus Diet & Exercise Solution”. Many of the readers of the book from all over the world, who’ve seen great results from the treatment, have shown their appreciation through their testimonials over the years.

 

As it was already mentioned, Borderline Personality disorder is an extremely difficult condition that involves a variety of psychological and behavioral symptoms. The Normalizing Brain Function treatment can improve or even resolve some of these symptoms, allowing the patient to better deal with the disorder, provided that the diagnosed patients would be compliant and stay the course of the treatment.  

 

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Farzad Farahmand, D.C.

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Woodland Hills, Ca. 91367